Before presenting specific messianic prophecies that Jesus fulfills, a good verse to consider is Luke 24:27 which states, “And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he [Jesus] explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.”
Jesus fulfills the Hebrew Scriptures (OT) as a whole. He fulfills God’s promises to Abraham in that he redeemed us in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, so that by faith we might receive the promise of the Spirit (see Gal 3:14) and God’s promises through the prophets (Acts 10:43 “All the prophets testify about him [Jesus] that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.”)
Jesus fulfilled prophecies about division among the people concerning him, and their rejection and betrayal of him. Psalm 118:22-23 states, “The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; the Lord has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes.” A similar prophecy appears in the New Testament in Luke 2:34-35 which states, “Then Simeon blessed them and said to Mary, his mother: “This child is destined to cause the falling and rising of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be spoken against, so that the thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. And a sword will pierce your own soul too.” Jesus fulfilled these prophecies through his life and ministry, in that people were divided over him. The haughty, the arrogant and the religious elite rejected him and were rebuked and judged, but the humble, the meek and the poor in spirit accepted him and were exalted.
More specific to a messianic betrayal is Jesus’ betrayal by Judas.
OT Prophecy: Psalm 41:9 Even my close friend, someone I trusted, one who shared my bread, has turned against me.
NT Fulfillment: John 13:18 “I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to fulfill this passage of Scripture: ‘He who shared my bread has turned against me.’
OT Prophecy: Jeremiah 19:1-13; Zechariah 11:12-13
NT Fulfillment: Matthew 27:9-10 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price set on him by the people of Israel, and they used them to buy the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”
Isaiah spoke of a future messianic figure who would bring good news to the people. He prophesied this messianic message,
The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God,to comfort all who mourn (61:1-2).
Jesus proclaims that he fulfills Isaiah’s prophecy from 61:1-2 (and 58:6.) Luke 4:16c-19 states,
He [Jesus] stood up to read, and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written: “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him.He began by saying to them, “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.
Jesus fulfilled this messianic prophecy throughout his ministry by carrying out the role of a prophet proclaiming the good news of deliverance and salvation through his life and ministry.
Furthermore, Jesus connects the Jonah story with his death and resurrection. Thus, in Jesus’ view the Jonah incident is a prophecy concerning his death and resurrection, which is later confirmed by eyewitnesses to his resurrection.
Jonah 1:17 Now the Lord provided a huge fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.
Matthew 12:39-40 He [Jesus] answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
Acts 2:31-32 that he was not abandoned to the realm of the dead, nor did his body see decay. God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of it.