Sunday Prayers

O God our King, by the resurrection of your Son Jesus Christ on the first day of the week, you conquered sin, put death to flight, and gave us the hope of everlasting life: Redeem all our days by this victory; forgive our sins, banish our fears, make us bold to praise you and to do your will; and steel us to wait for the consummation of your kingdom on the last great Day; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. (Sunday Morning Prayer in 2019 ACNA Book of Common Prayer)

O Lord God, you led your ancient people through the wilderness and brought them to the promised land. Guide now your people of your Church, that, following our savior, we may walk through the wilderness of this world toward the glory of the world to come; through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever. Amen. (First Sunday in Lent in Lutheran Book of Worship)

O most holy and blessed Trinity, you have taught us that when we fast, we give up comfort and conventions to make room in our lives for experiencing more deeply your divine love and togetherness. We starve the flesh to partake of your greatness, to hunger and thirst for you in earnest prayer and to stand in solidarity with and intercede for the poor and needy throughout the world. Help us view fasting not as a burden but as a joyous practice which evermore moves us to depend on you and to become like you in and to the world. Amen. (My Sunday Prayer)

Anabaptist and Post-Reformation Eschatology

During the Protestant Reformation period, the Anabaptists believed that at Christ’s second coming, he would destroy evil and establish his literal millennial kingdom. This view led some Anabaptist leaders to stir up apocalyptic rebellions and wars with the goal of ushering in the millennial golden age. Eventually, the Anabaptist settled on the idea that the New Jerusalem would be established in the city of Münster, and so they took over the city. They expelled Catholics and Moderate Protestants from the city and destroyed everything connected with traditional belief and worship. When some inhabitants of the city became tired of the excesses of the leaders, they opened the gate to the bishop and his joint Catholic-Protestant army which resulted in the end of revolution at Münster.[1] The Anabaptist revolutionary movement in Münster led to a strong negative view of premillennialism. In fact, Luther and Calvin emphatically rejected and were critical of Anabaptist premillennialism.[2] Concerning the Anabaptists’ view of the thousand-year reign of Christ on the earth, Calvin wrote that this was “a fiction too puerile to need or to deserve refutation.”[3]     

Post-Reformation Eschatology (C.E. 1600-1800)

The post-reformers followed the traditional eschatological views of Christ’s return, a general bodily resurrection, the last judgment, eternal punishment and the new heavens and the new earth with a few differences from that of the reformers. During the post-reformation era, there was a move away from the amillennialism posited during the medieval period and by Luther and Calvin. There was a renewed interest in premillennialism because of theologian Johann Heinrich Alsted’s defense of  premillennialism in his book entitled, The Beloved City. Also, the Puritan scholar and writer named Joseph Mede followed Alsted’s premillennialism views and popularized them in his book entitled, The Key of the Revelation. Thus, the thought and works of Alsted and Mede sparked a return to the premillennial position of the early church.[4]

Moreover, the idea of millennialism was prevalent during the English Civil War (1638-49) particularly among the “Fifth Monarchy Men,” which was a group in London who declared that the millennium was near when Christ would return as king to rule over the earth. With the recent Thirty Years War and the present English Civil War, they believed that they were involved in the wars of the last days, and so it was incumbent upon them to usher in this new and fifth[5] monarchy in order to change the social order by promoting justice and equality.[6] They believed that “the immediate duty of the saints was to prepare for the kingdom, by making the existing government accord as closely as possible with the rule of Christ. To this end none but godly men should sit in the seats of the mighty, tithes should be abolished, and the existing laws replaced by the law of God.”[7]

Puritans Thomas Bright-man, John Cotton and John Owen posited a doctrine of the “latter-glory” which was a preface to what has been described as a postmillennialism view. They believed at the end of history there will be a time marked by the power of the Kingdom of God when many people will convert to Christianity and the church will be pure in all aspects while experiencing support from governments worldwide. After this period of expansion, peace and prosperity, Christ will return. This view became unsustainable during the political turmoil in England during the seventeenth and eighteenth century; however, it was adopted and developed in New England by Daniel Whitby and Jonathan Edwards.[8]

Whitby and Edwards believed that Christ will return after the millennium, which was characterized by the radical spread of the gospel and the conversion of scores of people throughout the world. During this time, the Jews will be restored to the Holy Land and there will be universal peace and blessing. According to Whitby and Edwards, the reformation had set in motion many events that would lead to the demise of the papacy, which was identified as the Antichrist, and the ushering in of the millennium. They believed that the outpouring of revival during their time was a sign of the approaching thousand-year golden age.[9]

Furthermore, many post-reformers addressed the eschatological doctrines of final judgement and eternal punishment. While acknowledging the “two results of judgment—the blessings of eternal life and the torment of eternal punishment,” John Andrew Quenstedt expounded on both by using the terms “privative” and “positive.” As for the blessings of eternal life, “privative” blessings involve the removal of weakness and evil from the Christian experience, and “positive” blessings involve internal and external enrichment of the Christian experience. Turning to the torment of eternal punishment, “privative” torments involve the forfeiture of the beatific vision of God and separation and exclusion from all that is good, joyous and heavenly, and “positive” torments involve internal anguish and torture of the soul and external punishment that is “most painful and burning without being consumed.”[10]

Jonathan Edwards addressed the eschatological doctrines of final judgement and eternal punishment often through his sermons. Referring to the final judgment, Edwards states, “When that day comes, all mankind that have died from off the face of the earth shall arise; not only the righteous, but also the wicked.”[11] Then he describes the final judgement of the wicked by stating,

When Christ comes in the clouds of heaven to judgment, the news of it will fill both earth and hell with mourning and bitter crying. We read that all the kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him, and so shall all the inhabitants of hell; and then must the souls of the wicked come up to be united to their bodies, and stand before the Judge.[12]

At this point the wicked, “with all its guilt, and in all its filthiness, a vile, loathsome, abominable creature, an enemy to God, a rebel against him, with the guilt of all its rebellion and disregard of God’s commands, and contempt of his authority, and slight of the glorious gospel,”[13] will enter into eternal punishment.

Edwards affirmed the traditional eschatological doctrine of eternal punishment in his most famous sermon entitled, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. He writes,

There will be no end to this exquisite horrible misery. When you look forward, you shall see a long forever, a boundless duration before you, which will swallow up your thoughts, and amaze your soul; and you will absolutely despair of ever having any deliverance, any end, any mitigation, any rest at all… your punishment will indeed be infinite.[14]

Thus, according to Edwards, there is no hope for the wicked in hell because they will be unable to defeat or appease God that they might break free or be delivered. They will have no friends or advocates who will help them or pity them, and there is nothing that will ever relieve them of their extreme torment.[15]

As for the righteous, Edwards explains that they will be in heavenly glory with the triune God forever, where they will experience him without hindrance or obstacle. In heaven, the righteous will bask in God’s fountain of love. Edwards writes,

There this glorious God is manifested, and shines forth, in full glory, in beams of love. And there this glorious fountain forever flows forth in streams, yea, in rivers of love and delight, and these rivers swell, as it were, to an ocean of love, in which the souls of the ransomed may bathe with the sweetest enjoyment, and their hearts, as it were, be deluged with love![16]

Moreover, Edwards explains that the saints will be perfected in love, holiness and peace. The heavenly community will be in harmony with God and with one another. Edwards writes,

Every saint in heaven is as a flower in that garden of God, and holy love is the fragrance and sweet odor that they all send forth, and with which they fill the bowers of that paradise above. Every soul there, is as a note in some concert of delightful music, that sweetly harmonizes with every other note, and all together blend in the most rapturous strains in praising God and the Lamb forever. And so all help each other, to their utmost, to express the love of the whole society to its glorious Father and Head, and to pour back love into the great fountain of love whence they are supplied and filled with love, and blessedness, and glory.[17]

The Post-Reformers affirmed the eschatological doctrines of the new heavens and the new earth, but like previous eras there was some disagreement regarding the process. Theologians David Hollaz, Quenstedt, and Edwards held an annihilation perspective arguing that the entire fabric of the heavens and the earth will be conflagrated to nothing, and at this point, God will create and establish the new heavens and the new earth. In opposition, theologians William Ames and Francis Turretin opted for a transformative perspective arguing that the present heavens and earth undergo alteration or change orchestrated by God into the new heavens and new earth.[18]


[1] Justo L.González, The Story of Christianity: Vol.2 Reformation to the Present Day, Rev. and Updated, 2nd ed. (New York: HarperOne, 2010), EPUB edition, pt.1, ch. 6, “The Revolutionary Anabaptists.” [2]Allison, Historical Theology : An Introduction to Christian Doctrine : A Companion to Wayne Grudem’s Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011), EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Reformation and Post Reformation.” [3] Calvin, Institutes, bk 3, ch.25, section 5, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxvi.html.[4] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt. 7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Reformation and Post Reformation.”[5] “Fifth” because it came after the great four monarchies of history, the Babylonians, the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans.[6] González, The Story, EPUB edition, pt.2, ch. 18, “Civil War.” [7] Louise Fargo Brown, The Political Activities of the Baptists and the Fifth Monarchy Men in England During the Interregnum (London: Oxford University Press, 1912), 25. [8] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt. 7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Modern Period.” [9] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt. 7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Modern Period.” [10] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt. 7, ch. 32, “Judgment and Punishment in the Reformation and Post-Reformation.” [11] Jonathan Edwards, “The Portion of the Wicked” in The Works of Jonathan Edwards, 2:885, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works2.xv.vii.html. [12] Edwards, “The Portion of the Wicked,” 2:885.[13] Edwards,“The Portion of the Wicked,” 2:880.[14] Jonathan Edwards, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” in The Works of Jonathan Edwards, 2:11, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works2.ii.iii.html.[15] Jonathan Edwards, “The Future Punishment of the Wicked: Unavoidable and Intolerable,” in The Works of Jonathan Edwards, 2:80, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works2.iv.x.html.[16] Jonathan Edwards, Heaven a World of Love, http://www.chapellibrary.org/files/4113/9930/ 8433/hawo.pdf [17] Edwards, Heaven, http://www.chapellibrary.org/files/4113/9930/ 8433/hawo.pdf [18] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt. 7, ch. 33, “The Idea of the Eternal State in the Reformation and Post-Reformation.”

Reformation Eschatology: Martin Luther and John Calvin

During the reformation period, there was an emphasis on the historical perspective of biblical eschatology which views the last days as already coming upon humanity and the church. There was an anticipation of the new heavens and the new earth, “an ultimate end in which the fulness of the creation is maintained unimpaired in union with a heavenly consummation.”[1]

For Martin Luther, eschatology involved the tension between having and not- having which was formed from his thoughts on simul justus et peccator meaning “both righteous and a sinner.”[2] Luther believed that Christians “have begun to be justified through faith” while receiving “the first-fruits of the Spirit” and experiencing the beginning of the “mortification of the flesh,” but they are “not perfectly righteous.”[3] Thus, Luther states, “We possess Christ by faith and in the midst of our afflictions through hope we wait for the that righteousness which we possess already by faith.”[4]

John Calvin emphasized the resurrection, renewal and union with Christ “which raises [Christians] upwards, and casts its anchor in heaven, so that instead of subjecting Christ to the interventions of our reason, we seek Him above in his glory.”[5] This is where Calvin’s eschatological mood of hope and joy becomes central in the Christian life. When Christians understand that they participate in the victory won by Christ through his death, resurrection and ascension, they can live with a glorious eschatological vision and mission in the world.

Luther and Calvin affirmed the historic eschatological views of Christ’s return, a general bodily resurrection, the last judgment, eternal punishment and the new heavens and the new earth with each event following the other with no interval of time between.[6]In connection to Christ’s return, Luther and Calvin believed that there would first be an end times antichrist, and they identified the Pope or the papacy as the end times antichrist. Martin Luther, in a letter to Staupitz and others, wrote that the “Papacy is the seat of the real and true antichrist.”[7] Calvin called the Roman Pontiff antichrist and explained by writing, “Seeing then it is certain that the Roman Pontiff has impudently transferred to himself the most peculiar properties of God and Christ, there cannot be a doubt that he is the leader and standard-bearer of an impious and abominable kingdom.”[8] With this view of the antichrist, many reformers believed that the second coming of Christ would happen within their lifetime. They upheld the amillennialism view of Augustine and of the Medieval Church and rejected the premillennialism view that was being posited by the Anabaptists.                                                                                                

In his 95 Theses, Martin Luther rejected the medieval church’s teaching on the purchasing of indulgences to release souls from purgatory. He wrote, “Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept.”[9]  Moreover, he writes, “those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved.”[10] A few years later, Luther rejected the doctrine of purgatory all together. Thus, instead of three final states for humans, as believed by the Medieval Church, Luther posited two final states—heaven and hell.

With the rejection of purgatory and the belief in heaven and hell as the two final states for humans, Luther and Calvin affirmed the eschatological doctrines of final judgement and eternal punishment. Luther wrote:

The fiery oven is ignited merely by the unbearable appearance of God and endures eternally. For the Day of Judgment will not last for a moment only but will stand throughout eternity and will thereafter never come to an end. Constantly the damned will be judged, constantly they will suffer pain, and constantly they will be a fiery oven—that is, they will be tortured within by supreme distress and tribulation.[11]

While maintaining the central aspects of a final judgement and literal physical eternal punishment, Luther appears to be adding his own vision of the fiery oven based on Psalms 21:9, Malachi 4:1 and Revelation 9:2.

Calvin described the last judgement by writing:

He will separate the sheep from the goats and the elect from the reprobate, and when not one individual either of the living or the dead shall escape his judgment. From the extremities of the universe shall be heard the clang of the trumpet summoning all to his tribunal; both those whom that day shall find alive, and those whom death shall previously have removed from the society of the living.[12]

With this statement, Calvin is echoing Jesus’ teaching in Matthew 25:31-33 and Paul’s teaching in 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17.  

When referring to the eternal punishment of unbelievers, Calvin commented:

Unhappy consciences find no rest, but are vexed and driven about by a dire whirlwind, feeling as if torn by an angry God, pierced through with deadly darts, terrified by his thunderbolts and crushed by the weight of his hand; so that it were easier to plunge into abysses and whirlpools than endure these terrors for a moment. How fearful, then, must it be to be thus beset throughout eternity![13]

Much like the Scriptures’ use of metaphors when describing eternal punishment, Calvin also uses metaphors in this statement to describe the anguish that unbelievers will feel from being separated from the Almighty God.

Luther and Calvin did not add much to the historic doctrines of the new heavens and the new earth other than giving commentary on certain passages of scripture (i.e. Isa 65:17; Rom 8:21; 2 Peter 3:6-17). Calvin summarizes, “For though we are truly told that the kingdom of God will be full of light, and gladness, and felicity, and glory, yet the things meant by these words remain most remote from sense, and as it were involved in enigma, until the day arrive on which he will manifest his glory to us face to face.”[14]


[1] Thomas F. Torrance, Kingdom and Church (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1956), 3. [2] Torrance, Kingdom, 15. [3] Torrance, Kingdom, 15. [4] Martin Luther in Weimarer Ausgabe of Luther’s Work, Wein ar, 1883-, 40/2, p.30 quoted in Torrance, Kingdom, 15. [5] Torrance, Kingdom, 103 [6] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Reformation and Post Reformation.” [7]Martin Luther, quoted by Le Roy Edwin Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers: the Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation, v. 2 (Washington: Review and Herald, 1950), 56 cited by  Earle E. Cairns, “Eschatology and Church History (Part II).” Bibliotheca Sacra 115, no. 459 (1958), 230. [8]John Calvin, Institutes of Christian Religion, trans.Henry Beveridge, bk 4, ch.7, section 25, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxvi.html. [9] Martin Luther, “Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences” in  Works of Martin Luther, trans. & eds. Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol. 1, pp. 29-38, ar. 10-11. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/ epub/274/pg274.html. [10]Luther, “Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences” in Works of Martin Luther, ar. 21. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/ epub/274/pg274.html. [11] Martin Luther, What Luther Says, ed. Ewald M. Plass, 3 vols. in 1 (St. Louis: Concordia, 1959), 3:1154 [12] Calvin, Institutes, bk 2, ch.16, section 17, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iv.xvii.html. [13] Calvin, Institutes, bk 3, ch.25, section 12, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxvi.html.[14] Calvin, Institutes, bk 3, ch.25, section 10, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxvi.html.

Medieval Eschatology

During the Medieval Period, eschatology began to take on a new emphasis from that of the earlier church ages. Islam was expanding and had conquered Jerusalem which led the church to believe that Islam was the antichrist of the end times. Moreover, natural disasters, famines and the bubonic plague throughout Europe were viewed as precursors to the end of the world.[1]

One of the ways that the church responded to these circumstances is by organizing military crusades. An example of the eschatological thought behind the crusades is seen in the views of Bernard of Clairvaux who led and inspired the Second Crusade.

Bernard developed a four-age theory for Christian eschatology which was linked to the four trials in Psalms 91:5-6, “You will not fear the terror of the night, nor the arrow that flies by day, nor the pestilence that stalks in darkness, nor the destruction that wastes at noonday.” These four trials described the four time periods of the age of martyrs, the age of heretics, the age of corruption, and the age of the antichrist.[2] With Bernard’s theory many believed that they were either in the latter stages of the age of corruption or in the beginning stages of the age of the antichrist. Regardless of which age people viewed as the present, they believed that participating in the crusades would contribute to the fulfillment of eschatological prophecies and the second coming of Christ. This anticipation of the last days caused Bernard to lead the Second Crusade which was going against everything he had stood for as a Cistercian monk.[3]

Another popular eschatological view during the Medieval Period was developed by Joachim of Fiore. According to Joachim, history was based on three ages in connection with the doctrine of the Trinity. Thus, the age of the Father, corresponding with the period of the Old Testament; the age of the Son, corresponding with the Jesus movement and the church; the age of Spirit, corresponding to a renewal of the church and the final state of unity and peace on earth.[4] Joachim argued that each age “consisted of 42 generations of 30 years each. As a result, the age of the Son was due to end in 1260 to be followed immediately by the radical new ‘age of the spirit’.”[5] According to Joachim, the end of second age was drawing near resulting in an antichrist led tribulation against the church. In order to guide the church through this time, Joachim believed that God would establish two new orders of monks[6] corresponding to the two witnesses of Revelation 11:3-12. One order was described as the preachers and another as the hermits and despite the witness of the preachers and the prayers of the hermits, the antichrist would prevail over the church and turn it towards evil. However, the return of Christ would end this dreadful state ushering in the third age defined by spiritual renewal, peace and blessing.[7] Joachim’s views challenged the amillennial views of the medieval church, but his views were condemned by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.[8]

The eschatological views of Thomas Aquinas were the most influential during the Medieval Period . Aquinas upheld Augustine’s amillennialism and the historic doctrines of the return of Christ, the last judgment, eternal punishment and the new heaven and new earth.[9] A significant amount of Aquinas’ writings concerning eschatology was focused on responding to those who denied eternal punishment of the wicked. Aquinas pointed to Jesus’ teaching about eternal punishment in Matthew 25:46 which states, “And these [the unrighteous] will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.”[10] Aquinas expounded on eternal punishment by referring to the “pain of loss” and the “pain of sense.”[11] In the “pain of loss”, those who are against God lose the “beatific vision of God”[12] and are “punished by their exclusion from perpetual happiness.”[13] In the “pain of sense,” the wicked experience the sense of painful torment of body and the soul.[14]

As far as his views on the doctrine of the new heavens and new earth, Aquinas emphasised the renewal of the heavens and earth rather than annihilation before the creation of the new. He cited Isaiah 65:17 which states, “Behold I create new heavens and a new earth, and the former things shall not be in remembrance” and Revelation 21:1 which states, “I saw a new heaven and a new earth. For the first heaven and the first earth was gone.”[15] Moreover, he reasoned that “the dwelling should befit the dweller. But the world was made to be man’s dwelling. Therefore, it should befit man. Now man will be renewed. Therefore, the world will be likewise.”[16]

Lastly, a discussion on medieval eschatology would be incomplete without a mention of the idea of purgatory, which was an ancient idea that was further developed with new emphasis during the Medieval Period.[17] Thus, the medieval idea posited that “the ‘eternal punishment’ due to sin is waived, but there remains a ‘temporal punishment’ to pay.”[18] When people die without having paid off the temporal punishment debt, they enter purgatory where the debt is paid off by “penal and expiatory suffering.”[19] This suffering was believed to be lessened through the offering of mass for the departed, and the offering of indulgences was viewed as releasing people from purgatory.[20]

The medieval period was a time of shifting eschatological thought for the church due to external political, military and natural challenges. The church responded to these challenges with an apocalyptic zeal or with a scholastic biblical outlook. During this period, purgatory became the central eschatological focus which was one of the many factors leading to the Protestant Reformation.    


[1] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Middle Ages.” [2] Maria L. Ruby Wagner, “The Impact of the Second Crusade on the Angelology and Eschatology of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux,” Journal of Religious History 37, no. 3 (2013), 326. [3] Wagner, “The Impact of the Second Crusade on the Angelology and Eschatology of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux,” 328. [4] McGrath, Christian Theology, EPUB edition, pt.3, ch. 18, “Joachim of Fiore: three ages.” [5] McGrath, Christian Theology, EPUB edition, pt.3, ch. 18, “Joachim of Fiore: three ages.” [6] These two new orders of monks were identified as the Franciscan order and the Dominican order. For an example of how Joachim’s views influenced these orders of monks, see Ray C. Petry “Medieval Eschatology and St. Francis of Assisi.” Church History 9, no. 1 (1940): 54-69.  [7] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Middle Ages.” [8] McGrath, Christian Theology, EPUB edition, pt.3, ch. 18, “Joachim of Fiore: three ages.” [9] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7,  ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Middle Ages.” [10] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, pt. 3, sup., q. 99, art. 1 http://www.ccel.org/ccel/ aquinas/summa.XP_Q99_A1.html. [11] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 32, “Judgment and Punishment in the Middle Ages.” [12] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 32, “Judgment and Punishment in the Middle Ages.” [13] Thomas Aquinas, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, 218, quoted in Robert A. Peterson, Hell on Trial: The Case for Eternal Punishment (Phillipsburg, N.J. : P&R, 1995), 109, cited by Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7,  ch. 32, “Judgment and Punishment in the Middle Ages.” [14] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 32, “Judgment and Punishment in the Middle Ages.” [15] Aquinas, Summa, pt. 3, sup., q. 91, art. 1  http://www.ccel.org/ccel/aquinas/summa.XP_Q91 _A1.html. [16] Aquinas, Summa, pt. 3, sup., q. 91, art. 1 http://www.ccel.org/ccel/aquinas/summa.XP_Q91 _A1.html. [17] A.N.S Lane, “Purgatory” in New Dictionary of Theology (NDT) : Historical and Systematic edited by Martin Davie et al. 2nd ed, (Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic, 2016), EPUB edition. [18] Lane, “Purgatory” in NDT, EPUB edition.[19] Lane, “Purgatory,” in NDT, EPUB edition. [20] Lane, “Purgatory,” in NDT, EPUB edition.

A Friday Reflection: Love, Mercy and Patience

So stubborn, so irritable, so rough around the edges, and yet so loved. Always shrinking back, always making excuses, always pursuing my own way, and yet always being wrapped in mercy. Slow, lazy, distracted, and yet patience abounds.  

Oh, the goodness of God in our lives. His love, mercy and patience is abundant. God is not exhausted with us in our feebleness and shortcomings. Rather, he is eager to meet us in the hideousness. He is willing to look past our faults and embrace us with compassion. He is desirous to walk with us in our slowness and to guide us in his ways and in the works he has prepared for us to do. 

In fact, God wants to be with us and bless us with his goodness so much that God-the Son entered the broken and sin ravished world in order to reconcile it to himself. He pitched his tent among us. He became incarnate. He became the God-man, Jesus. “For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace” (Isa 9:6). Jesus was born to be the savior of the world. He was born to become a substitutional sacrifice for us. He was born to conquer sin and death. 

As Christians, we celebrate this birth. We celebrate the incarnation. We celebrate Jesus. While we celebrate, let us reflect deeply on the meaning of Jesus, and let us prepare and open our hearts to receive God and all his goodness. May we see the ways God has shown and is showing himself to be loving, merciful and patient.

Sunday Prayers

Lord, help me keep my thoughts on the things that are above. Even if I spend time and energy buying gifts for others during this season, help me to invest above all in the gifts of your kingdom and the treasures of your love, your grace, and your mercy. (Daniel G. Groody, Daily Reflections for Advent & Christmas 2019, pg. 7)

Jesus, you are the long-awaited messiah sent to set the captives free and to bring forth your kingdom of peace. As those of old anticipated your coming, help your church to yearn for your second coming. As your messenger prepared the way before you, may we prepare our hearts to receive you and your blessed gifts. As people of light, life and love, move us to joyously proclaim your name among the nations. (My prayer)

A Friday Reflection: Peace, Peace…But?

They have treated my people’s brokenness superficially, claiming, “Peace, peace,” when there is no peace. Jer. 6:14

Yesterday was Thanksgiving Day here in the United States. A day of commemoration of a meal in 1621 between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag. It was a gathering of different cultures to celebrate and to give thanks for a successful harvest. It was a peace meal that would initiate fifty years of peace between the distinct people. However, eventually the peace faded and war broke out between the two groups. 

Fast forward to 1863 during the American Civil War where Abraham Lincoln, on the heels of his issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, pointed back to the 1621 peace meal as an example of the spirit that would heal the wounds of war, put an end to the civil strife and restore the nation. He declared the last Thursday of November as an offical annual holiday marked by thanksgiving, celebration and peace. Also, Lincoln stirred the people to humbly repent of “national perverseness and disobedience” and to provide tender care to “all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife.”[1]

Lincoln cast the vision for future Thanksgiving Day observance, and thus throughout the years on Thanksgiving Day most U.S. citizens have strived to gather together with family, friends, neighbors, co-workers and strangers to give thanks, to celebrate, to pass the peace and to take care of one another. There has been many annual meals commemorating that first thanksgiving meal and Lincoln’s Thanksgiving Day vision. The nation says peace, peace!

But we need to ask ourselves, is it superficial? Is it sincere? Will it last? In the United States, the day after Thanksgiving Day is referred to as “Black Friday” and throughout the years, Black Friday has been creeping in reverse into Thanksgiving evening and extending to “Cyber Monday” and into the Advent season. Black Friday is all about saving on material goods. People camp outside waiting for the stores to open so they can take advantage of all the deals. Every year there are people getting into fights over the hot deal items. On Thursday people offer a turkey wing to their neighbor while on Friday they elbow a stranger in the face. Seemingly peaceful on Thursday but a complete savage on Friday. We can celebrate and be grateful for the harvest but then get completely overrun with materialism, consumerism and discontentment. 

We can gather with family, friends and neighbors, and we can even put our differences aside for a few hours all in the name of Thanksgiving Day. We can feast and go around the table saying why we are thankful while neglecting to apologize or repent for the wrongs we have committed to one another. Thanksgiving Day can become a superficial treatment to the brokenness of our relationships. We can say “peace, peace when there is no peace.” 

How do we experience geniune and lasting thankfulness and peace? Well, I think Lincoln touches upon this with his emphasis on grace, mercy and providence of the Almighty God. Lincoln explains that even “in the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity” the nation has experienced bountiful blessings. He states, “No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy.”[2]

Thus, we should sincerely and humbly look to God praising and thanking him. Not just with our lips but with our whole hearts, with our whole being, with our whole life. We should always be quick to confess our sins to God so that we might experience his grace, mercy and peace. We should always be quick to genuinely confess our wrong doings to one another so that we may experience forgiveness and reconciliation. We should always be quick to forgive so that we may experience God’s restoration.  

Moreover, we should resist the “Black Friday” culture. I think the team over at Advent Conspiracy has done great work at reversing the hijacking (which begins on Black Friday) of the Advent and Christmas seasons. They do a good job at explaining how materialism and consumerism have crowded out the meaning and purpose of Advent and Christmas.

If we celebrate on Thanksgiving Day to the glory of God and settle into the true meaning of the Advent and Christmas seasons, then we will more fully experience God’s goodness and greatness through the redemptive life and work of Jesus Christ. Because Jesus became incarnate and died for our sins and was resurrected, we also are resurrected and our resurrection hearts and lives will be filled with genuine and lasting thankfulness and peace. 

On the western church calendar, the Advent season starts on Sunday Dec. 1. Let’s forgo Black Friday (or cyber Monday if your already shopped today) and prepare to settle into Advent.  


[1] http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/thanks.htm

[2] http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/thanks.htm

Eschatology of the Imperial Church Period (c. 306-500 C.E.)

During the time of the Imperial Church, changes in eschatological views began to shift, specifically on the millennium. The Alexandrian allegorical interpretation espoused by Origen and others had a lasting impact in the area of eschatology. Tyconius wrote Book of Rules where he presented his interpretive method for the scriptures. He taught that the prophecies of scripture will be fulfilled spiritually, not literally as the Early Church had imagined. According to his interpretation of Revelation 20:1-6, the one thousand years is a spiritual reign with Christ and corresponds to the current church age. Thus, due to the rejection of a literal millennium, Tyconius’ view has been called “amillennialism.”[1]   

Tyconius influenced Augustine who further explained the amillennial view by linking the bondage of Satan for a thousand years in Revelation 20:2-3 with Jesus’ casting out demons as a result Satan being bound (Mark 3:27) and by referring to Luke 10:18 where Jesus states, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.” According to Augustine, when the church began to extend throughout the nations, this revealed that Satan’s power had been restrained and crippled. It is only when Satan is subdued that people experience the “first resurrection” spiritually, and then reign with Christ spiritually until he comes a second time at the end of the world.[2] While Augustine taught that there was no literal future millennium, he did posit that there was a future eternal millennium that symbolically rounded out “the seven millenniums from Adam which he held comprised the history of man.”[3]

On a more superficial level, Augustine may have avoided the literal interpretation of the millennium due to a popular view that the millennium emphasized “luxurious material blessings”[4] or that it was “a time of carnal enjoyment.”[5] This view may have formed within the context of the new changes between church and state under Constantine’s prioritizing of Christianity.[6] Regardless of Augustine’s exact reasoning for his rejection of the literal millennium, his “amillennial interpretation of Revelation 20 superseded the premillennial understanding so prevalent in the early church. With this development, amillennialism became the dominant eschatological belief for well over the next millennium.”[7]

Beyond his amillennial views, Augustine developed his eschatology into a philosophy of history in his treatise entitled City of God. In this work, he describes two cities—the city of God and the city of the world. These two cities battle throughout the ages, but God and His city prevail in the end.[8] The story of these two cities presents a strong Christian eschatology where the church is exiled in the present secular world during the time between Christ’s incarnation and his glorious return. There is an eschatological tension experienced by those of the city of God as they live out the Christian faith surrounded by unbelief while at the same time looking to the future hope where they will finally be delivered and be with God in his glory for eternity.[9]       

In the City of God, Augustine presents his views on final judgement and eternal punishment. He followed the NT writers and the Early Church Fathers on these views in the face of several opponents. There was the continued influence of Origen’s allegorical theology that posited that God would ultimately restore and save every fallen being, and so punishment was viewed as rehabilitative and not eternal. Some argued that eternal punishment was impossible seeing that continued punishment would eventually destroy embodied human beings. Others suggested that there were no sins that one could commit which would warrant eternal punishment or that God, due to his compassionate character, would eventually cease punishment.[10] In response to these arguments, Augustine, referring to Matthew 25:46, wrote,

If both destinies are “eternal,” then we must either understand both as long continued but at last terminating, or both endless. For they are correlated: On the one hand, punishment eternal; on the other hand, life eternal. And to say in one and the same sense ”life eternal will be endless, punishment eternal will come to an end,” is the height of absurdity. Therefore, as the eternal life of the saints will be endless, so too the eternal punishment of those who are doomed to it will have no end.[11]


[1] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [2] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [3] John F. Walvoord, “Amillennialism From Augustine to Modern Times” Bibliotheca Sacra 106, no. 424 (1949), 423. [4] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [5] Walvoord, “Amillennialism From Augustine to Modern Times,” 423. [6] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [7] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [8] Noble, “Eschatology,” in NDT, EPUB edition. [9] McGrath, Christian Theology, EPUB edition, pt.3, ch. 18, “Augustine: the two cities.” [10] Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.” [11] Augustine, City of God, 21.3, in NPNF, 2:453-54 quoted by Allison, Historical Theology, EPUB edition, pt.7, ch. 31, “Eschatological Beliefs in the Early Church.”

John Calvin: Christian Scholar and Reluctant, yet Faithful, Pastor

John Calvin recognized early on in his Christian life that his gifts and skills were that of a scholar and author rather than an active reformation leader or pastor. Thus, one of the most significant aspects about his life was his ability to systematize protestant theology through writing. His Institutes of the Christian Religion played a major role in the furtherance of protestant theology during the reformation.

Another significant aspect of Calvin’s life was his availability for kingdom ministry. Calvin knew that he was more equipped to be a scholar and author and was reluctant to take on any ministerial roles. In fact, he declined such roles on numerous occasions, but when he experienced the Holy Spirit’s call to certain ministerial work, he submitted and served the church as a pastor. On one such occasion he was on his way to a comfortable life as a writer in Strasbourg, but he was detoured on his trip and landed in Geneva. He had planned on staying in Geneva for a day and then continue on to Strasbourg; however, after he had an encounter with a leader named Farel, who challenged Calvin to stay and pastor those in Geneva, Calvin had a change of heart and decided to stay in Geneva and help the protestant movement. Eventually he left Geneva and made it Strasbourg where he planned on fulfilling his original intentions to settle as a writer, but once again, a leader, named Bucer, recruited Calvin to the pastorate, and Calvin agreed and became the pastor in Strasbourg.[1]

This aspect of Calvin’s life should be emphasized because Calvin could have stuck his heels in the ground and refused to do anything other than scholarly writing, but he had an available heart before the Lord when things were coming together for him to step into pastoral ministry. It was not easy for Calvin to detour from his plan of a quiet life as a writer, but I imagine that he recognized that God was leading him in different directions, and so he needed to follow God rather than pursue his own ambitious plans.  


[1] Justo L.González, The Story of Christianity: Vol.2 Reformation to the Present Day, Rev. and Updated, 2nd ed. (New York: HarperOne, 2010), EPUB edition, pt. 1, ch. 7, “The Reformer of Geneva.” 

Luther and His Confessor

A significant element in Martin Luther’s life was his relationship with his confessor and priestly superior. As a spiritual advisor, Luther’s confessor had helped him during his spiritual and theological struggles by suggesting that Luther read the writings of the medieval mystics. Through the reading of the mystics, Luther experienced some liberation by adopting the mystic ethos of loving God. This enabled Luther to focus less on his internal struggles with sin and more on experiencing and reciprocating God’s love.

When Luther’s experience with the writings of the mystics had ran its course due to the re-emergence of his internal struggles with his past and with sin, his confessor did not give up on him but gave him further counsel. The confessor boldly and wisely ordered Luther to begin teaching the Scriptures at University of Wittenberg. The purpose of such an order was attached to the hope that if Luther began teaching and pastoring others, then he would be able to break away from his internal struggles. Thus, Luther began to teach the scriptures which eventually led him to lecture on the Epistle of Romans. At this point, the Holy Spirit pressed upon Luther Romans 1:17 which changed his perspective and life. He was set free by the truth of the redeeming gospel that “justification by faith” is a free gift from God to sinners. With his new perspective on the gospel and his new experience of God, Luther subtly began his new reforming mission.

This part of Luther’s life should be reflected on because it is an incredible picture of the drama of redemption and the power of the Holy Spirit in the life of God’s storied people. God has acted through the redeeming work of Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit ministers and leads people to enter into the redemptive drama where people are liberated from sin, torment and death. The Holy Spirit opens people’s hearts and minds in order to understand God’s salvation. As the Holy Spirit leads the body of Christ in their performance of the drama of redemption through loving and ministering to one another, people will experience the grace, mercy and peace of Jesus Christ.